Qualitative research validating facial expression

Changes over time are extremely relevant for avoiding misinterpretations of present behavioral patterns and their functional accounts.


Knowledge is conceived not as a fixed, timeless corpus of accumulated facts, but as relational, extensive and dynamic, and as such it is always provisional and amenable to updating, re-tests and replications.

How and how much is uncertain, but much cognitive science research proceeds as if this difference did not matter.

Cognitive science’s foundational goal of multidisciplinary collaboration among disciplines has gradually receded.

In anthropology, assaying the spatial dispersion of a human phenomenon (i.e., studying as many diverse indigenous societies as possible) is only half the job.


It is also essential to study a phenomenon’s temporal dimensions—its diachronic properties.Researchers who wish to establish facts about human cognition are also plagued by problems in translation, but they may not realize it.



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